Symposium/Luigi NONO and Prometeo
International Summer Courses for New Music (Internationale Fereinkurse fur Neue Musik) in Darmstadt. Founded in 1946 by musicologist Wolfgang STEINECKE (1910-61) for the dissemination of music by SCHONBERG and others banned under the Nazis. Particularly famous from 1951 on as a mecca for avantgarde music centered on the "total serialism" (a "total" expansion upon SCHONBERG's twelve-note "serialism" by means of rhythms and dynamics) expounded by composers Pierre BOULEZ (1925- ), Karlheinz STOCKHAUSEN (1928- ) and Luigi NONO (1924-90).
Anton (von) WEBERN (1883-1945). Austrian composer. Studied under SCHONBERG; together with SCHONBERG and fellow disciple BERG, is said to belong to the New Vienna School [Neue Wiener Schule]. Created even more rigorously twelve-note works than SCHONBERG, while his latter period works move toward a proto-total serialism, making him a hero of the total serialists.
In this work the 109-chair orchestra is divided into three groups of 36, 37 and 36 seated left, center and right, each playing at a different tempo so as to create shifting layers of auditory space. Premiered in March 1958 with STOCKHAUSEN, BOULEZ and Bruno MADERNA conducting. STOCKHAUSEN also composed [[Carre]] (1960) for four orchestra groups and four choral groups surrounding the audience.
Improvisations sur Mallarme.
A work for soprano and orchestra based upon the poetry of MALLARME. Parts I (1957) and II (1957) were premiered in January 1958, while Part III (1959) was premiered in June 1959. Thereafter, he consolidated these together with the similarly MALLARME-based [[Tombeau]] (1959) and [[Don]] (1962) under the title [[Pli selon pli, portrait de Mallarme]] (1962, revised 1983).
Les Grands Projets.
Major public urban redevelopment scheme initiated by former French president Francois MITTERAND. Enlisted many noted contemporary architects to design such projects as the Musee du Louvre Pyramide (I.M. PEI), Institut du Monde Arabe (Jean NOUVEL) and Parc de la Villette (Bernard TSCHUMI).
Renzo PIANO (1937- ). Italian-born architect. Major works include the Centre Georges Pompidou (together with Richard ROGERS) and the Kansai International Airport Terminal.
Bernard TSCHUMI (1944- ). Swiss-born architect. Major works include the Parc de la Villette. At present, Dean of Columbia University Graduate School of Architecture. Writings include Manhattan Transcripts (Academy Editions) and Architecture and Disjunction (MIT Press).
Christian de PORTZAMPARC (1944- ). Moroccan-born architect. Won the 1992 Grand Prix d'Architecture of France and 1994 Pritzker Prize.
In autumn 1987, NONO was invited to Japan under the auspices of the Suntory Hall International Program for Music Composition (Dir.: the late TAKEMITSU Toru) and on 28 November he had the world premiere of the commissioned work [[2) No hay caminos, hay que caminar . . . Andrei Tarkovsky]] performed at Suntory Hall, Tokyo.
HOSOKAWA Toshio (1955- ). Japanese composer. Works include [[Jo-Ha-Kyu]] (1980), [[Preludio]] (1982), [[Tokyo 1985]] (1985), [[Utsurohi]] (1986), [[Hiroshima Requiem]] (1989) and the opera [[King Lear]] (1998). Since 1989, as Artistic Director of the Akiyoshidai International Contemporary Music Seminar & Festival he has put considerable efforts into cultivating a new generation of young Japan composers.
Andre RICHARD (1944- ). Swiss-born. Studied composition at Geneva and Freiburg before becoming Director of the Experimentalstudio der Heinrich-Strobel-Stiftung des Sudwestfunks Freiburg. Worked as assistant to NONO toward the end of his career, in charge of the electronic sounds for [[Prometeo]] and many other of his works.
Massimo CACCIARI (1944- ). Italian philosopher. Collaborator with NONO from the latter half of the '70s on such works as [[Das atmende Klarsein]] (1981) and [[Prometeo]]. At present, Mayor of Venice. Writings include Architecture and Nihilism: On the Philosophy of Modern Architecture (translated by Stephen Sartarelli, Yale University Press, 1993), DRAN (1992), L'Angelo necessario [The Necessary Angel] (Milan, 1986) and Icone della legge [Icons of Law] (Milan, 1985).
STOCKHAUSEN's major work-in-progress [[Licht]] is to incorporate a "Helicopter Quartet" in which members of a string quartet are to be airborne in helicopters. [[Sirius]] (1976) is another work by STOCKHAUSEN.
Repons (1981). Work for six solo instruments (two pianos, a cymbalon, a vibraphone, a harp and a glockenspiel--including real-time electronic audiotransforms) and chamber orchestra. Incorporated a full panoply of technologies developed for the Institut Recherche et Coordination Acoustic/Musique (IRCAM) where BOULEZ served as Director.
In the morning of this same day prior to the Symposium, Andre RICHARD gave a lecture on "Electronic Music of Luigi Nono" demonstrating live electronic acoustics at the Akiyoshidai International Art Village Concert Hall.
Halaphon. An apparatus conceived by German audiotechnician Hans Peter Haller, allowing sounds to move freely through a space. Utilized in [[Prometeo]].
Ferruccio BUSONI (1866-1924). Italian composer-pianist. His best-known work is [[Piano Concerto]] (1904). From 1894 on, he spent most of his life in Berlin. Remembered as the author of Sketch of A New Esthetic of Music (1907) in which he sets forth theories of atonal and microtonal music, and as an annotator of BACH's works.
Henri POUSSEUR (1929- ). Belgian composer. In his opera [[Votre Faust]] (1967), a collaboration with French writer Michel BUTOR, a composer named Henri is commissioned to write an opera on the Faust legend, and the audience can participate by "voting" for any of several prepared paths by which the story can progress.
Mauricio KAGEL (1931- ). Argentine-born composer, has resided in Germany since 1957. Has worked in a wide variety of genres, including musical theater, radio drama and film. His representative work is the absurdist opera [[Staatstheater]] (1971) in which the singers and orchestra members go out of kilter while setting up the stage props and ballet dancers go through their exercises.
fermata. One type of rest notation in classical music. Indicates notes and rests of free length.
LaSalle Quartet. American string quartet (now disbanded). Specialized in WEBERN and other contemporary composers. Friends with NONO ever since the '50s Darmstadt's Summer School days, they commissioned and premiered his [[Fragmente-Stille, an Diotima]].
Arditti Sting Quartet. English string quartet led by violinist Irvine ARDITTI (1953- ). Was noted for their astonishing skill and polished clarity of performance, highly acclaimed for their renditions of contemporary music for strings.
NISHITANI Keiji (1900-90). Philosopher. Studied under NISHIDA Kitaro, preeminent philosopher of the Kyoto school (see ). Participated in the "Transcending the Modern" debates published in Bungakukai magazine. Writings include Kongenteki Shutaisei no Tetsugaku [The Philosophy of Fundamental Subjectivism] and Sekaikan to Kokkakan [Worldview and Stateview].
...explosante-fixe .... Work for three flutes (with live electronics) and chamber orchestra. Originally composed in memory of STRAVINSKY, the present version was produced in 1991-93 in collaboration with IRCAM.
Kontra-Punkte. Work for piano, flute, clarinet, bass clarinet, bassoon, trumpet, trombone, harp, violin and cello. All instruments except for the piano drop out one after another as the piece progresses. Premiered in 1953, it is acclaimed as an early masterpiece of total serialism.
Frederico Garcia LORCA (1898-1936). Spanish poet-playwright. Poetry collections include Romancero gitano and El cante jondo, plays include Bodas de Sangre and La casa da Bernada Alba. Shot by Franco's troops soon after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.
NISHIDA Kitaro (1870-1945). Philosopher. Professor at Kyoto University (1913-28). Established his own brand of "Nishida philosophy" extolling the Japanese negative-value of mu [nothingness], and together with TANABE Hajime formed the "Kyoto school." Writings include Zen no Kenkyu [The Study of Good], Jikaku niokeru Chokkan to Hansei [Insight and Reflection in Self-Awareness] and Hataraku Mono kara Miru Mono e [From Working to Seeing].
Performed as part of the Ars Musica Festival at Brussels' Halles de Schaerbeek on 4-6, 8-9,11-13 March 1997.
Robert WILSON (1941- ). American avantgarde dramatist. Numerous collaborations with musicians such as the opera [[Einstein on the Beach]] (1976) co-written with Philip GLASS. Has staged a number of operas.
Jurgen FLIMM (1941- ). German dramatist. Also staged many operas. Staged the Frankfurt production of NONO's [[Al gran sole carico d'amore]] in 1979.
Moses und Aron. Opera by SCHONBERG based on the Old Testament story of Moses and Aaron. SCHONBERG wrote a script for three acts, but only completed music for the first two acts.
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